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The securities markets in India have witnessed several policy initiatives, which has refined the market micro-structure, modernised operations and broadened investment choices for the investors. The irregularities in the securities transactions in the last quarter of 2000-01, hastened the
introduction and implementation of several reforms. While a Joint Parliamentary Committee was constituted to go into the irregularities and manipulations in all their ramifications in all transactions relating to securities, decisions were taken to complete the process of demutualisation and
corporatisation of stock exchanges to separate ownership, management and trading rights on stock exchanges and to effect legislative changes for investor protection, and to enhance the effectiveness of SEBI as the capital market regulator. Rolling settlement on T+5 basis was introduced in respect
of most active 251 securities from July 2, 2001 and in respect of balance securities from 31s t December 2001. Rolling settlement on T+3 basis commenced for all listed securities from April 1, 2002 and subsequently on T+2 basis from April 1, 2003. All deferral products such as carry forward were banned from July 2, 2002.

At the end of March 2008, there were 1,381 companies listed at NSE and 1,236 companies were available for trading. The Capital Market segment of NSE reported a trading volume of Rs.35,51,038 crore during 2007-08 and at the end of March 2008, the NSE Market Capitalisation was Rs.48,58,122

The derivatives trading on the NSE commenced with the S&P CNX Nifty Index Futures on June 12, 2000. The trading in index options commenced on June 4, 2001 and trading in options on individual securities commenced on July 2, 2001. Single stock futures were launched on November 9, 2001. Thereafter, a wide range of products have been introduced in the derivatives segment on
the NSE. The Index futures and options are available on Indices - S&P CNX Nifty, CNX Nifty Junior, CNX 100, CNX IT, Bank Nifty and Nifty Midcap 50. Single stock futures are available on more than 250 stocks. The mini derivative contracts (futures and options) on S&P CNX Nifty were introduced for trading on January 1, 2008 while the Long term Options Contracts on S&P
CNX Nifty were launched on March 3, 2008.

Due to rapid changes in volatility in the securities market from time to time, there was a need felt for a measure of market volatility in the form of an index that would help the market participants. NSE launched the India VIX, a volatility index based on the S&P CNX Nifty Index Option prices. Volatility Index is a measure of market’s expectation of volatility over the near term. Other than the introduction of new products in the Indian stock markets, the Indian Stock Market Regulator, Securities & Exchange Board of India (SEBI) allowed the direct market access (DMA) facility to investors in India on April 3, 2008. To begin with, DMA was extended to the institutional investors. In addition to the DMA facility, SEBI also decided to permit all classes of investors to short sell and the facility for securities lending and borrowing scheme was operationalised on April 21, 2008.
The Debt markets in India have also witnessed a series of reforms, beginning in the year 2001-02 which was quite eventful for debt markets in India, with implementation of several important decisions like setting up of a clearing corporation for government securities, a negotiated dealing system to facilitate transparent electronic bidding in auctions and secondary market transactions on a real time basis and dematerialisation of debt instruments. Further, there was adoption of modified Delivery-versus-Payment mode of settlement (DvP III in March 2004). The settlement system for transaction in government securities was standardized to T+1 cycle on May 11, 2005. To
provide banks and other institutions with a more advanced and more efficient trading platform, an anonymous order matching trading platform (NDS-OM) was introduced in August 2005. Short sale was permitted in G-secs in 2006 to provide an opportunity to market participants to manage their interest rate risk more effectively and to improve liquidity in the market. ‘When issued’
(WI) trading in Central Government Securities was introduced in 2006. As a result of the gradual reform process undertaken over the years, the Indian G-Sec market has become increasingly broad-based and characterized by an efficient auction process, an active secondary market, electronic trading
and settlement technology that ensures safe settlement with Straight through Processing (STP).
 however, takes a review of the stock market developments since 1990. These developments in the securities market, which support corporate initiatives, finance the exploitation of new ideas and facilitate management of financial risks, hold out necessary impetus for growth, development and strength of the emerging market economy of India.